X – Rays
So called because the first scientist to study them, Wilhelm Rontgen did not know what they were … but knew they were not gamma radiation.
Scientists had known for some time that vacuum tubes produced a light outside the visible spectrum that could penetrate the tissues of the hand.
Rontgen found a way to use this to see the underlying bone structure. His first X-ray was of his wife’s hand wearing rings.
The WHO has classified X-rays as a carcinogen. And we kind of know that. Think about the technician at the dentist’s office hiding behind the wall. But it isn’t terrible. The amount of X-ray and the amount of exposed time are very important to determining your risk. X Rays only account for about 10% of the total exposure risk. The sun is the biggest contributor.
A dental x-ray is equivalent to about one day’s normal exposure to X rays, a full chest X-ray is about 10 days, a full CT span – 2-3 YEARS ! But most medical experts feel that the risks are outweighed by the benefits because the X rays are not repeated in the same intensity.
A CRAZY part of the tail end of Edward Teller’s career and the SDI or Space Defense Initiative of the Reagan Administration was the use of X-rays to blow up missiles in space. The source of the X-rays were meant to be satellites with nuclear bombs whose energy could be tapped.
Virtually unchanged for millions of years. Shallow warm waters around the world. Three species in Asia, one Atlantic.
They have gills but can breathe through their mouths.
Their blood is blue because they carry oxygen in hemocynin that uses copper as opposed to iron.
Ten pairs of legs, four have pincers. They swim upside down.
They mount each other for reproduction …. But they don’t really have to. Female on the bottom digs a depression in the sand, lays thousands of eggs. Male climbs on top and fertilizes the eggs. Then the female covers the eggs.
Chi – X – is the antepenultimate letter of the Greek alphabet … followed only by Psi and Omega. Its sound is the hard K sound – sometimes misunderstood as a softer “ch” sound.
However the Etruscans had taken the letter X and they used it the way the Latin language would with the EX sound.
X sounds like X usually at the start of words. EX in the middle or end of words. Sexual … relax. And can sound like “c-sh” when used with – ion. We respell it in American.
It’s more complicated in Spanish … where “X” is pronounced as J is pronounced “hu” Mexico.
Moving on. In Roman Numerals X is Ten … evolved from a double tally mark. In Greek Numerals it is 600.
The expression “X marks the spot” dates back to the early 19th Century and was not regularly ascribed to pirate treasure maps until the second half of the 1800s. You’ll find it in Treasure Island.
“X Marks the Spot” is also a position that Cosmo gives five of five “flames” for. It is not the same as the scatological reference that Urban Dictionary gives for “X marks the Spot.”
This bring is to
A non-trademarked rating of the MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America). MPAA will assign the rating if the film is not suitable for minors but because it is not trademarked it can also be applied BY filmmakers. Some pornographers decided that if X rating was good then they could add Xs to indicate that a movie was even more pornographic … thus Triple XXX.
In the US an X rated film meant no one under 17 until 1990 when it was replaced with NC 17. Henry and June was the first US film rated NC 17. Since 1996, NC 17 has meant no Children 17 and under.
In Australia, the sale of X18+ to a minor can result in a fine of over $5,000.
In Great Britain ratings can change over time… Plan 9 from Outer Space was rated X in 1960 and changed to PG in 1990. Battleship Potemkin was rated X due to Bolshevik Propaganda.
In FRANCE, the land of nude beaches and relaxed continental sexual mores… X rated films can only be shown in specific types of theaters (which are severely restricted by zoning) and taxed at 33% of revenue.
Ready for the Questions?
Vietnam Vet in Coming Home.
New York Rochester is home to Xerox.
Disney – through ESPN.
The Orlando Rage are still the reigning XFL best record but they lost in the playoffs.
Hercules: the Legendary Journeys – starring Kevin Sorbo. Xena had 24 more episodes than Hercules.
Sony -- Play Station
X Box One.