The native people of the Pacific Northwest have been creating large carvings of totems for at least 200 years. But probably not much longer.
Working the Western Red Cedar (tall straight trees of the Pacific Northwest) requires metal tools and the native American populations had no metallurgy. The earliest carvings were most likely made with found metal from shipwrecks or trade with trappers.
Totem poles evolved from smaller 2-4 foot house posts to funerary markers (like wooden tombstones) to memorials to the clan symbols that we think of as totem poles towering dozens of feet tall.
Totem poles have never been worshipped. They are more or less family crests. Symbols of important characters in the history of the clan. They tell a narrative.
There is not standard hierarchy of importance related to position on the pole. The expression “low man on the Totem Pole” has no real meaning for totem poles. In some situations the entire clan looks to the lowest figure for support.
The large form totem poles would typically be at the center of the village and serve as a sort of introduction to the clan.
There is a variation of totem poles known as shame poles that would be posted when a clan owed a debt.
When a clan moved to a new village the pole would be allowed to rot in place. Tribal units were fairly migrant, moving on when local resources were low. As a result there is very little historical record of totem poles pre-dating the late 19th Century.
Wilderness Lodge at Disney World has a few examples of Pacific Northwest Totem Poles about 50 feet tall.
Modern Turkey is predominantly Muslim (about 75% of the population) but forcefully secular as a government. There was a recent political issue when the current administration tried to end a ban on headscarves at state universities.
Turkey controls territory on both sides of the Bosphorus and the Dardenelles, meaning that it is both European and Asian.
Turkey has allowed Universal Suffrage since 1933. Has 50 political parties. To avoid Italian-style logjams in Parliament, your party must have 10% of the popular vote to gain representation in Parliament. Three parties hold seats today.
Turkey has a strong Hellenistic influence since it was conquered by Alexander the Great. 550 years later, Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 324 CE.
Tarantula is a Family of spiders … rather than a genus or species. 900 Species of Tarantula.
Large spiders with external hairs and an exoskeleton. The Smallest … the size of a thumbnail. The largest, the Goliath BirdEater of Brazil and Venezula weighs 5 ounces is the second largest spider on earth.
Tarantula can be found in the Southern US and Mexico, Mediterranean Europe and South East Asia. All over South America, Australia and Africa.
Ready for the Questions?
Novus Roma (New Rome) , Constantinople and Istanbul
Turnip (48% daily Vitamin A and 42% of the Vitamin C in a single serving.)
20th – 1902.
28 Bronze casts – only 8 Presidents have died in office.
William Henry Harrison
He is the only President who did not have a state funeral he was a member of the Confederate Congress when he died.
Telephone (Electricity was installed during Benjamin Harrison’s administration and he wouldn’t touch it) POTS – Plain Old Telephone System
1.2 Billion 19 POTS lines for every 100 inhabitants.