Quicksand – I was sure this would be the most exciting thing. I was wrong. Quicksand can happen anywhere that there is fine granular sand or silt and water. Quicksand can be found on all continents except Antarctica.
It is easy to get stuck in quicksand. Not as easy to drown. We are more buoyant than quicksand.
Moving makes you sink faster. But not indefinitely. That is a Hollywood invention. In the 1960s its estimated that 3% of ALL movies had at least one quicksand scene.
There are dangers… hypothermia, animal attack, dehydration, tides.
To get out spread yourself out… like you do on ice. And pull your legs out. Took Bear Grylls about 3 minutes.
Quinine – Made from tree bark from the cinchona tree. Quechua natives from Peru and Bolivia had used it for centuries to battle the shivering associated with being cold.
Since tremors are a symptom of malaria, Conquistadors used the bark as a treatment. After successfully saving Popes and Kings from malaria it was discovered that Quinine could also prevent malaria.
Today synthetic Quinine is used to treat Lupus, arthritis and nocturnal leg cramps.
Quinine tastes HORRIBLE. There is very little in Tonic water. It is fluorescent. Tonic water glows under a blacklight. So would a Gin and tonic. G and T’s became popular in the 1700s in India. Which is why so many gins have Indian inspired named and are made in England and Scotland.
By the 1940s, 97% of the World’s quinine production was done on Java. Germany’s defeat of the Dutch created huge shortages of quinine for US troops involved in tropical campaigns in the Pacific, killing tens of thousands. Japanese soldiers did not have very good access to quinine either.
Also known as The Society of Friends
They are not Amish … although they use Thee and Thou in their church materials. Also not Shakers… nor Mormon.
They are not technically a single church. Each group more or less makes its own decisions about the direction of the worship and congregation policy. Not universally Christian. Some groups are Theists.
As a result there are several major factions. Varying from city to city, state to state, country to country.
They use a unique calendar. Observing that our calendar has days and months named for pagan gods, they simply number the days and the months. Their week runs First Day to Seventh Day paralleling Sunday to Saturday. Months start on our New Years Day on First Month.
They do not typically celebrate what we think of as church holidays… Christmas… Easter, Lent. They are typically non- Sabbatarians… feeling that EVERY day is the Lord’s Day. (I really wanted that to be non-Sabbathians … sorry CC)
Quakers found the religious freedoms of the North American colonies inviting. However… in the 1600s and early 1700s that freedom to worship as you choose was not really terribly widespread. Pennsylvania and Rhode Island were the two colonies that allowed the most freedom. William Penn was a Quaker.
Quakers have a history of embracing inclusive ideals. They were early adopters of abolition of slavery and alcohol, women’s rights, pacifism. Many groups accept same sex marriage. Not all. Quakers are celebrated as Conscientious Objectors. They also tend to have a reluctance to swear oaths.
I say reluctance… because I know one famous Quaker oath taker – Richard Nixon. Quaker throughout his life but did not attend meetings in DC.
Susan B Anthony, Johns Hopkins, Ben Kingsley, Edward R Murrow, Joseph Wharton (of Wharton’s Business School) all famous Quakers.
Barclays, Lloyd’s of London, Clark and Cadbury candy companies were all founded by Quakers.
Ready for the Questions?
Copper (75%) and Nickel (25%)
Washington (NJ/SD), Madison (NJ – Washington crossing the Delaware), Lincoln (IL/SD), Theodore Roosevelt (SD), Thomas Jefferson (SD)
Flash Gordon, Highlander.
A Night at the Opera, A Day at the Races
Indian – Zanzibar is both a city and an island and an island archipelago off the east coast of Africa north of Madagascar (more on Zanzibar in 9 weeks)